**COURSE DESCRIPTION (SYNOPSIS): B.Eng. PROGRAMME**

**BUS 101 Introduction to Business** **2 Credits **

Introduction

Scope of business. Definition of business. External properties of business. Role of business. Types of economic systems. Why study business?

Forms of Business Ownership

Sole proprietorship. Partnership. The Joint Stock company. Statutory corporations/Public enterprises. Cooperative societies.

Management and Organisation

Nature of management. Functions of management. Line and staff functions in organisations.

Production and Marketing

Types of production. Production process. The marketing concept. Marketing functions.

The Accounting Function

Purpose of accounting. Principles of accounting. Double entry bookkeeping. Day books. Ledger account. The trial balance. Profit and loss account, and the balance sheet.

**FEG 103 ** **Circuit Theory I** **2 Credits **

Introductory concepts: Electrons and protons, conductors, insulators and semiconductors, units and definition of ampere, volt, resistance, power and energy, MKS units.

Resistive networks, resistances in series and parallel , current and voltage divisions, open and short circuits, cells, Kirchoff’s current and voltage laws and their application.

Electrostatics: electric field of a parallel plate capacitor, multiple capacitors, capacitors in series and parallel, energy stored in a capacitor.

Electromagnetism: magnetic field, permeability and magneto motive force, self and mutual inductances, inductances in series and parallel: Lenz’s laws, energy stored in an inductor.

Network theorems: Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems: superposition theorem, maximum power transfer theorem, delta-star-delta transformation.

Introduction to AC theory: waveform generation: angular measure, frequency and period, average and mean square values, phasors and phase angles.

**FEG 101 Engineering Mathematics I** **3 Credits **

Trigonometry Graphs of sin x. Trigonometrical identities. Double and half angles. Solution of the expression acosx + bsinx = x. The factor formulae. Solution of triangles by the size and cosine formula. The half angle formulae.

Coordinate Geometry: The equation of a straight line. Parallel and perpendicular lines. Surfixes. Angles between two lines. Directed distances. Polar coordinates. Relation between polar and Cartesian coordinates. Parametric equation.

Differentiation

Differentiation from first principles. Differentiation of xn, sinx, cosx, ex and log x. Differentiation of logarithmic functions. Successive differentiation. Maxima and minima. Curve sketching.

Series

Sequences, arithmetic and geometric progressions. Summation of series. Series with rth term in a polynomial. The method of induction. Binomial and logarithmic series. Limits and convergence.

Circular Measure

The equation of a circle. Arc length. Area of a sector. Area of a segment. Small angles. Geographical solution of equations. Tangents to a circle.

Algebra

Surds. Factional indices. Zero and negative indices. Roots of a quadratic equation. The remainder theorem. Permutation and combination. Theory of inequalities.

**FEG 102 Engineering Mathematics II** **3 Credits **

Integration

Integration as the inverse of differentiation. The indefinite and definite integral. Integration by substitution. Trigonometrical integral. Powers of sinx and cosx.

**Expansion in Series **

Power series. Maclaurin’s and Taylor’s series. Series for sinx, cosx and logx, lnx. The binomial series. Exponential series.

**Partial Fractions **

Denominators with linear factors. Denominators with quadratic and repeated factors. Improper fractions.

**Three Dimensional Trigonometry **

Angle between a line and a plane. Angle between two planes. Three dimensional geometry. Skew lines, parallel lines and planes. Surfaces of revolution.

**Probability and Statistics **

Mutually exclusive events. Independent events. The binomial probability distribution.

**Hyperbolic Functions **

Conic sections. The parabola, ellipse. Parametric coordinates of an ellipse. The rectangular hyperbola. Hyperbolic sine and cosine. Osborn’s rule. Inverse hyperbolic functions.

Mensuration and Moments of Inertia

Right circular cones. Frustum of a right cone. Surface area of a sphere. Moments of inertia. Perpendicular axes theorem. Parallel axis theorem.

**GSS101 Use of English I** ** ** **2 Credits **

Use of English is a course designed to equip participating students with the language skills required for excellent communication in all fields of human endeavour. It contains inter alia the following: Oral English, Parts of Speech, Phrases and clauses, Sentence construction, Direct and indirect speech, Passive and active construction and capitalization, Listening, Speaking and Reading skills, Pre-writing skills, Use of Library, Use of dictionary, Skills for examination..

**GSS102 Use of English II** ** ** **2 Credits**

Students are drilled on effective writing skills among which are the techniques for writing Outlines, Paragraphs, Essay, Letters, Speeches, Public announcements, Students’ reports/term paper, Minutes, Memoranda, Short stories and Summary.

Students are also helped to master the techniques for effective note taking/note making cum the use of library for research purposes.

**GSS103Introduction to Philosophy and Logic** **2 Credits**

The concept of philosophy, Etymology of philosophy. A brief survey of the main branches of philosophy. Metaphysics. Epistemology. Axiology and logic. Modes of philosophy. Speculative and analytic modes. Uses of philosophy. Major systems of thought. Idealism. Realism. Pragmatism. Existentialism and analytic school of thought. The method of education using rules of inference and bio-conditions. Symbolic logic: special symbols in symbolic logic, conjugation, negation, affirmation, disjunction, equivalence and conditional statements.

**GSS105** **Humanities ** ** 2 Credits**

Appreciation of the cultural content, meaning, variations and dynamics of organized social life through history, philosophy, arts, music, religion, political science and sociology. Patterns of symbolic interaction and their influences on human action. Primordial and civic cultural orientations. The meaning of life and its changing forms in Nigerian society.

**GSS107 Nigeria Peoples and Culture** **2 Credits**

Study of Nigerian history and culture in pre-colonial times. Meaning, variations and dynamics of culture. Archaeological heritage of Nigerian States. The history of Nigeria in the 19th and 20th centuries. Ethnicity, national interest and national integration. Evolution of Nigeria as a political unit. The value question in Nigerian national development. Social justice and political instability. The philosophy of Nigerian state. The military as an instrument of nation building in Nigeria. Empowering women for national development. Personality. Its concept, structure and development. Crime and juvenile delinquency. Prevention and control of HIV/AIDS and STDs in Nigeria. Music in Nigerian culture. Youths and drug in Nigeria. Culture areas in Nigeria and their characteristics. Concepts of functional education. National economy. Balance of trade. Economic self-reliance. Social justice. Individual and national development. Moral obligations of citizens.

**ICH101** **Basic Organic Chemistry** **2 Credits**

Introduction

Brief historical background, bonding in organic compounds, the carbon atom, hybridization (sp3, sp2, sp). Classification of organic compounds. Isolation and purification of organic compounds. Elemental or qualitative analysis. Quantitative analysis. Formulae of organic compounds (empirical, molecular and structural). Structural and stereoisomerism. Functional group and homologous series. .

IUPAC Nomenclature

IUPAC Nomenclature of the following family of organic compounds: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, halogenoalkanes, alkanols, alkanals, alkanones, alkanoates, acid amides, nitrites and amines, alkanoic acids acid chlorides and acid anhydrides

Preparation, physical and chemical properties of the families listed above.

**ICH102 ** **Basic Physical Chemistry** **2 Credits**

The Gas Laws

Boyle’s law, Charles law, the general gas equation, Gay-Lussac’s law. Gas constant. Dalton’s law of partial pressures, Graham’s law of gaseous diffusion. The kinetic theory of matter. Derivations from the kinetic equation. Deviations from the ideal gas law. Van der Waal’s equation. Liquefaction of gasses. The joule-Thompson effect.

Properties of Dilute Solutions

Definition of the following concentration terms: molarity, molality, mole fraction, vapour pressure and lowering of vapour pressure. Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, lowering of freezing point. Osmotic pressure.

Introduction to Thermodynamics

Definition of the following terms: systems, state variables, and equilibrium, isothermal and adiabatic processes. The first law of thermodynamics. Work done for state changes (PV type).

Thermochemistry

Heat changes, Heats of reaction, laws of thermochemistry (Lavoisier and Laplace laws and Hess’ law of constant heat summation). Applications of the laws in calculations. Bond energy.

Chemical Equilibrium

Chemical equilibrium and reversible reaction. The law of mass action. Equilibrium constant. Factors affecting chemical equilibrium. Equilibrium between ions in the solid and liquid phases. Solubility and solubility product. Effect of a common ion on solubility and solubility product.

Chemical Kinetics

Rate of a chemical reaction. Factors affecting the rate of a chemical reaction. Activation Energy.

Ionic Equilibrium

Electrolytes, Acids and bases. Bronsted-Lowry, Lewis and Arrhenius theories of acids and bases. pH and dissociation constant. Ionization of water. Hydrolysis. Buffer solution and buffer capacity.

**ICH111** ** General Basic Inorganic Chemistry** **2 Credits **

Matter: Laws of chemical combination. Stoichiometry of chemical kinetics. Atomic structure and electronic configuration of elements. Electronic Theory of valencies.

Bonding: Ionic, covalent, co-ordinate, hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals forces. Fundamental components of atoms. Stable and unstable particles. Periodic classification of elements. Block, rows and groups. General feature of chemistry of s-, p-, d-, and f- blocks. Isotopes. Detection, concentration and separation of isotopes.

Natural and artificial radioactivity. Stability of nucleus. Fission and fusion. Differences between radioactivity and ordinary chemical reactions. Measurements of radioactivity. Decay constant and calculation involving radioactivity.

**ICH112** ** Basic Practical Chemistry** **2 Credits **

Theory and Practice of volumetric and qualitative inorganic analysis. Preparation of standard solutions. Calculation of molarity and concentrations. Method of dilution of solution and calculation. Redox titration and calculations involved. Test for common anions and identification of: SO42-, SO32-, NO3–, CO32-, CL–, Br–, I–, NO2–. Test common cations: Fe2+, Fe3+, NH4+, , Zn2+, Pb2+, Al3+, alkali and alkaline earth metals. Test for common ions in the first transition series eg. Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu, etc. Group separation of cations.

**MAT101 Elementary Mathematics I** **3 Credits**

Number system – natural, integer, rational, irrational, real, and complex numbers. Elementary set theory. Indices, surds and logarithms. Quadratic equations. Polynomials and their factorization – the remainder and factor theorems. Rational functions and partial fractions. The principle of mathematical induction (PMI). Permutations and Combinations. The binomial theorem for rational index. Progressions – arithmetic, geometric, harmonic, arithmetic-geometric Solution of inequalities. The algebra of complex numbers – addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Argand diagrams and the geometry of complex numbers. Modulus. Arguments and polar co-ordinates. The de Moivre’s theorem. Complex nth roots of unity and complex solution to z’=a.

Trigonometry – circular measure, elementary properties of trigonometric functions, radian measure, addition formulae and other trigonometric identities. Sine and cosine laws. Solution of triangles, heights and distances.

**MAT102 Elementary Mathematics II** ** 3 Credits**

Functions concept and definition: examples – polynomials, exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric functions. Graphs and their properties. Plane analytic geometry. Equations of a straight line, circle, parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Tangents and normal.

Differentiation from first principles of some polynomial and trigonometric functions. Techniques of differentiation – sum, products, quotients and chain rules including implicit differentiations. Differentiation of simple algebraic, trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic and composite functions. Higher order derivatives. Applications to extremum and simple rate problems. L’Hospital’s rule, simple Taylor/McLaurin expansion. Curve sketching. Integration as anti-differentiation. The fundamental theorem of integral calculus. Application to areas and volumes.

**PHY 101 General Physics I ** **3 Credits**

Space and time frames of reference. Units and dimensions. Kinematics – vectors, scalars, speed/velocity, acceleration, circular motion and applications. Fundamental laws of mechanics. Statics: Equilibrium. Centre of mass.

Dynamics. Newton’s law of motion. Force, inertia, mass and weight. Contact forces. Atwood machine. Pulleys. Projectile motion.

Linear momentum. Galilean invariance. Universal gravitation – Newton’s gravitation law. Kepler’s laws. Gravitational potential. Earth’s satellite. Velocity of escape and weightlessness. Work and energy. Rotational dynamics and angular momentum. Moment of inertia. Kinetic energy of rotation. Conservation laws. Oscillatory motion – simple harmonic motion, damped and forced oscillation.

**PHY 102 General Physics II** **3 Credits**

Electricity and Magnetism, Optics

Electrostatics: Coulumb’s, Gauss’s law. Capacitors. Electric Fields and potentials. Energy in electric field. Conductors and currents. Ohm’s law. Temperature dependence of resistance. Combination of resistances. Measurement of resistances, e.m.f. Dielectrics (qualitative treatment only). Magnetic fields and induction. Faraday’s and Lenz’s laws. Earth’s field. Ampere’s law. Maxwell’s equations (qualitative treatment only). Electromagnetic oscillations and waves, types, properties. Mirrors and lenses. Reflection, refraction, applications. Optical instruments.

**PHY 107 General Physics Laboratory I** **1 Credit **

This introductory course emphasizes qualitative measurements, the treatment of measurement, errors and graphical analysis. A variety of experimental techniques will be employed. The experiments include studies of mechanical systems and mechanical resonant systems, light, heat, viscosity, etc. Covered in PHY 101.

**PHY 108 General Physics Laboratory** **II** **1 Credit **

Basic experiments on electricity and magnetism covered in PHY 102. Experiments include studies of meters, the oscilloscope, and electrical resonant system.

**BUS 204 ** **Principles of Management ** **2 Credits**

Basic Concepts in Management

What I management? Definitions of management. The three dimensions of management – management as a process; management as an organization position; management as a profession. Management as a science or art or both? Universality of management. Functions of the manager – planning, organizing, motivating, communicating, controlling, decision making.

Staffing and Directing

Nature of staffing. The staffing process. Human resources planning – selection, interview, recruitment, induction and orientation, training and development, performance appraisal, promotion and demotion, transfers and disengagements. Concept of directing. Nature of directing and leading. Leadership and leadership styles. Motivation. Communication – process, channels, networks, problems and grapevine.

Controlling

The concept of control. The control process. Types of control control systems. Characteristics of effective control systems. Control techniques – financial, operational and technical controls. Mathematical/statistical control systems – PERT, CPM.

The Nigerian Environment

Characteristics of the Nigerian business environment – managerial, financial, infrastructural, political, government intervention. Management problems in Nigeria – educational, training and development, accountability, succession, deployment, organizational. Challenges of current economic reforms in Nigeria. Transferability of management systems. Management by Objectives

**FEG 221 ** **Fluid Mechanics I ** **2 Credits**

Hydrostatics

Fundamental element of fluid statistics; density, pressure, surface tension, viscosity, compressibility. Hydrostatic equation and its integrations for incompressible fluids. Pressure distributions over plane and curved surfaces. Resultant force; line of action; centre of pressure. Measurement of pressure.

Dynamics

Steady and unsteady flow of fluids; streamlines; stream tubes. One, two and three-dimensional flows, uniform and non-uniform flows. Laminar and turbulent flows. Nature of motion around blunt and streamlined bodies; establishment of velocity profiles, boundary layer separation; formation of wakes.

Use of control volume for steady flow mass balance, momentum balance and energy balance pressure and velocity in ideal fluids and in shear flow situation.

Dimensional Analysis

Buckingham’s pi-theorem, Dimensionless groups. Dynamical similarity. Flow modelling. Nature of effects of fluid friction in pipes and channels, relationship between friction factor and Reynolds’s number. Flow characteristics of pumps and turbines.

**FEG 242 Thermodynamics ** **2 Credits**

Basic concepts. What is thermodynamics? Basic definitions. Historical background of thermodynamics. Dimensions. Units. Macroscopic and microscopic domain. Thermodynamic systems, boundaries, control volume. Properties and states, processes, heat and work, pressure, temperature and zeroth law. Intensive and extensive properties Measurement of temperature, volumes and pressures.

The first law of thermodynamics. Application to open and closed systems. Internal energy, work and heat transfer. Storing work as non-PV work. Sign convention in heat and work transfer. Steady state flow equation (Bernoulli equation). Conservation of energy, flow processes and enthalpy. Flow and non-flow work.

Thermodynamic properties of pure substances, working fluids, liquids. Vapours and gases. Liquid-vapour phase equilibrium diagram. Saturated and superheated states in water and in working fluids of refrigerators. P-V-T relations and diagrams. The ideal gas. Steam quality measurements. Barrel calorimeters, separation throtting and combined calorimeters, use of property tables. Processes in the vapour phase at constant volume, constant pressure. Isothermal, hyperbolic and polytrophic processes. The perfect gas, the ideal gas and P-V-T relation. Specific heats, the gas constant, universal gas constant. The mole processes with the ideal gas. Isothermal, isochronic, adiabatic, and polythrophic processes.

The second law of thermodynamics and its corollaries. Reversibility and irreversibility. Efficiency and temperature scale. Carnot cycly in idealized heat engines and refrigerators. Heat pumps, absolute temperature scale.

Entropy: Clausius inequality; T-S diagram for various processes. Maximum available energy. Entropy change in isolated systems. Consequences of the second law.

**CSE 201 ** **Computer Programming** **2 Credits**

Introduction – types of computers and components, their uses – industrial ad scientific. Computer logic – software and hardware. Introduction to computer languages – FORTRAN, BASIC, COBOL etc.

**CSE 202 ** **Computer Programming II ** **2 Credits**

Application of FORTRAN and BASIC to simple problems, flow charts, Data structures. Analysis of commercial and professional software: database, spreadsheet, and word-processing, CAD, CAL, CAM etc. Operation systems – IBM OS/2, Microsoft’s DOS and WINDOWS, UNIX etc. Practical exercises with commercial and professional software.

**FEG 211 ** **Applied Mechanics I (Statics) ** **2 Credits**

Fundamental principles and permissible operations with forces acting on a rigid body. Elements of vectors. Moment of a force about a point and about an axis. Vargnon’s theorem. Reduction of two and three dimensional force systems. Equilibrium in two and three dimensions and its application in the determination of reactions at the constraints of determinate structures (beams, frames and arches). Graphical statics and its application in solving problems involving coplanar forces. Methods of joint, section, Maxwell-Cremona and Culma in solving plane trusses. Centre of gravity; graphical and analytical solutions. Friction and related static problems.

**FEG 212 ** **Applied Mechanics II (Dynamics) ** **2 Credits**

Coordinate systems and position vectors. Kinematics of a particle in plane motion in different coordinates. Displacement, velocity, acceleration of a particle. Kinetics of a particle in motion. Newton’s law. Types of forces. Systems of particles. Centre of mass, simple harmonic motion.

Kinematics of a rigid body in plane motion. Relative motion between two points on a rigid body. Velocity diagrams, instantaneous centre of rotation. Kinetics of a rigid body in plane motion. Work and energy for a system of particles. Kinetic energy of a rigid body. Potential energy. General energy principle. Virtual work. Dalambert’s principle. Mechanical distinctions between solids and fluids. Compressibility, density, viscosity, Kinematics viscosity and the dependence of these properties of pressure and temperature, ideal solids and fluids Particles and rigid bodies, mass force velocity and acceleration.

**FEG 215 ** **Strength of Materials ** **2 Credits**

Subject matter of strength of materials. Fundamental hypothesis in strength of materials. Problems and methods in strength of materials. External and internal forces, stresses, displacement and deformation. Hook’s law and the principle of superposition. General principles of structural analysis. Tension and compression. Internal forces and stresses on the cross-section of a rod in tension and compression. Elongations of bar and Hook’s law, potential energy of strain, statically determinate and statically indeterminate systems. States of stress and strain in tension and compression.

Torsion: Pure shear and its characteristics. Torsion of a rod of circular cross-section. Torsion of a rod of non-circular cross-section. Geometrical characteristics of cross-section of a rod. Static moments of section. Moments of inertia of a section and principal axes and principal moments of inertia.

Bending: Internal forces acting on cross-section of a rod in bending. Stresses in a rod under pure bending. Stresses in transverse bending, oblique bending, eccentric tension and compression and stability of columns.

**FEG 201 ** **Basic Electricity I** **3 Credits**

Revision on network theorems.

Analysis of AC Circuits: Series and parallel RL and RC circuits. Series and parallel RLC circuits. Resonance series and parallel. Impedance diagrams. Quality factor.

Mesh and Node Analysis: Choice of mesh currents. Mesh equations by inspection. Node analysis. Matrix method.

Coupled Circuits: Analysis of coupled circuits, coupling coefficient. Dot notation.

Circuit Transients: DC transients. RC and RL transients. AC transients. RLC transients.

Introduction to Electronic: Semiconductor properties. Electrons and holes. Intrinsic and extrinsic conduction. Donor and acceptor atoms. P N junction. Introduction to thermionic devices. Junction diode characteristics. Other diodes – Zener, photodiodes, tunnel and LEDS. Diode circuits. Bipolar transistors. Simple treatment of transistor operations.

**FEG 202 ** **Basic Electricity II ** **3 Credits**

Poly-phase Systems: Two phase and three phase systems. Star and delta connected loads. Power in three phase systems. Two wattmeter methods applied to balanced loads.

Power Factor Correction: Power in sinusoidal steady state. Average and apparent power. Active and reactive power. Power factor correction.

Measurement and Instrumentation: Circuit symbols. Component identification: Reasons for measurement. Error analysis. Equipment reliability.

Use of meters: AVO, CRO, signal generators.

Transistors: The transistor as an amplifier, common base, common emitter and common collector configurations. Transistor biasing and stabilization. Field Effect Transistors: JFET and MOSFET. Biasing the FET. Treatment of analogue and digital electronic instruments.

**ICH 221 ** **General Physical Chemistry** **2 Credits**

Kinetic Theory

Behaviour of gases and kinetic theory. Ideal and non-ideal behaviour of gases. Derivation of the kinetic theory equation for the pressure of an ideal gas and deductions there from. Molecular and collision diameter and number. Mean free path. Collision number. Viscosity of a gas Boltzmann distribution law. Types of average speed. Mean velocity, root-mean-square velocity and most probable velocity. Equipartition of energy. Brownian motion.

Chemical Thermodynamics

Nature and scope of thermodynamics. Important definitions. The first law of thermodynamics. Calorimetry. Standard molar enthalpies of formation and the determination of standard molar enthalpies for chemical reactions from tables of these. Heat capacities. The carnot cycle.

**MAT 201 ** **Linear Algebra I** **3 Credits**

Vector and Vector algebra. Vector space over the real field. Linear dependence and independence. Basis and dimensions. The dot and cross products in three-dimensions. Equations of lines and planes in free space. Linear transformation and their representation by matrices. Matrix algebra. Operations on matrices – rank, range, null space, nullity. Determinants and inverses of matrices. Singular and non-singular transformations.

**MAT 202 ** **Elementary Differential Equation ** **3 Credits**

Methods of integration. Introduction to differential equations of the first order. Examples to illustrate the sources of differential equations from the physical and biological sciences – growth, decay, cooling problems and the law of mass action. Linear differential equations of second order. Application of the first and second order linear differential equations to falling problems and simple circuits. Laplace transformation.

**FEG 215** **Engineering Drawing I** **2 Credits**

Use of engineering drawing tools/equipment. Lettering, construction of title blocks, freehand sketching. Pictorial views. Introduction to orthographic projection. 1st and 3rd angle projection. Projection of prints, lines and planes. Supplementary views visibility. True length of lines, grade and bearing of a line. Intersecting lines, skew lines, parallel lines, perpendicular lines, point view of a line. Edge view of a plane surface. Shortest distance between two skew lines (including shortest perpendicular or horizontal at a given grade). True shape of a plane surface. Line conventions. Geometric constructions. Dimensioning practices.

**FEG 214** **Engineering Drawing II ** **2 Credits**

Angle between plane surfaces. Strike line and dip angle of a plane surface. Angle between two interesting lines. Angle between two non-interesting (Skew) lines. Angle between a line and a plane. Development of prisms, cylinders, pyramids, cones, transition pieces, spherical surface.

Intersections of lines and a plane surface, a line and a cone, a line and a cylinder, a line and a sphere of plane surface, solid bounded by plane surfaces, a cone and a cylinder, two cones, any solids a plane with topographic surface.

Vector quantities. Graphical statistics. Graphical presentation of data. Graphical mathematics. Graphical calculus. Empirical equations. Functional scales. Nomography. Isometric and oblique perspective views.

Introductory building drawing. Common sizes of brick and cement blocks. Brick/block bounds. Representation of doors and windows in plan, wall plasters, rafters, etc. Electrical circuit diagrams.

Practice with CAD software and drafting tables.

**FEG 280** **Engineering in Society ** **2 Credits**

Philosophy of Science and Technology

Concept of science and technology. The impact of technological development on the society materially, socially and culturally.

History of Engineering and Technology

Major technological developments in human history to the present day.

Industrialization and Social Change

A sociological examination of industrialization. Problems of urbanization and the role of technology in influencing behaviour.

safety in Engineering and Introduction to Risk Analysis

safety criteria. Physical causes. Human attitude. Safety assessment techniques including risk assessment and risk analysis.

Role of Engineers in Nation Building

Qualifications of engineers. Engineering profession. Who are engineers? Possible careers. COREN registration of engineers. Internship for engineers. Role of engineers in government and nation building.

**FEG 281** **Workshop Practice I** **2 Credits**

Elementary introduction to types and organization of engineering workshop, covering, jobbing, batch, mass production. Safety measures in the workshop in mechanical, electrical and civil engineering workshops. Principles of working. Bench work and fitting.

Introduction to workshop hand and powered tools, with emphasis on safety measures during operation.

Workshop materials, their properties and use. Various gauges, micrometer and other measuring devices. Measurement and making for uniformity, etc.

General principles of working of standard metal cutting machine tools. Drilling machine and drilling processes. Screw threads and thread cutting using stock and dies. Marking off on face plate. Functions and capabilities of grinding machines, drilling machines, lathe machine, grinding machines and sharpening machines. General machine operation practice.

Mass production and modern machine tools, turret lathes, automatic and semiautomatic lathes, etc.

**FEG 282** **Workshop Practice II ** **2 Credits**

Standard measuring tools used in workshops. Welding, brazing, soldering etc. Blacksmith hand tools and working principles. Introduction to welding and brazing. AC and DC electric arc welding. Fitting and assembling. Basic electrical skills. Testing of electrical installation and circuits including earthling.

Tools and machines for woodwork: hand tools, materials, classification and uses of timber. Various joints. Types used in carpentry and joinery. Processing, preparation and preservation of wood.

Basic skills in brickwork and masory. Setting out equipment using working drawings. Bonding, plumbing, levelling, ganging and erection of corners in brick/block work.

**FEG 250** **Principles of Materials Science** **3 Credits**

Atomic structure. Electrons and bonding theory. Influence on materials structure and behaviour. Crystalline structures. Concept of grains and grain boundaries. Long range and short range order. amorphous solids. Packing arrangements of crystals. Coordination numbers. Unit cell concept. Packing factors. Crystal defects and imperfections. Polycrystalline solids. Ductile and brittle behaviour. Stress-strain curves. Plastic deformation. Alloying concept. Solid solutions. Precipitation from saturated solid solutions. Equilibrium phase diagrams. Ageing phenomena. Hardening processes. The structure and properties of ceramics, glasses, cement and concrete, organic polymers, wood and various composite materials. Elements of conduction, semi-conduction and insulation theory.

**ENT 200 ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AND NEW VENTURE CREATION **

- Introduction to Entrepreneurship:

- Definition of Entrepreneurship
- Difference between Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurship
- Entrepreneurship Theories
- Types of Entrepreneur
- Characteristics of the Entrepreneur
- Functions of the Entrepreneur

- The Entrepreneurial Process
- Developing ideas and Business Opportunities
- Analyzing the Market, Customers and Competition
- Preparing the Feasibility Study and Business Plan
- Sources of Financing
- Setting up the Business Company:

- Challenges you consider and study before starting any business
- Factors that hinder business start-up

8 Business Failure:

- Symptoms of business failure
- Causes of business failure
- How to prevent business failure

**ECE 321 Telecommunications I** **2 Credits Sem. 1**

**Elements of Communications System**

Block diagram model, fundamental limitations

**Amplitude modulation **

Reasons for modulation of radio waves, Frequency spectrum of AM signals. Small signal and large signal modulations, Power in AM signals and percentage modulation, DSB, SSB, ISB and VSB Circuits for AM generation.

**Angled Modulation: **

A simple FM generation, FM analysis, Noise Suppression, Direct and indirect FM Generation, Phase-locked-loop (PLL) FM Transmitter, Wide band and narrow band FM signal.

Detection:

AM detectors, Envelope detection, Practical diode detection, Practical diode detector, VSB demodulator, Synchronous Detector, FM discriminations. Foster seeley discriminator, Radio, detector, Demodulation of FM waves: Detection in the presence of noise.

**Radio-wave propagation : **

Earth’s atmosphere, Spectrum and Nomenclature of radio waves, Polarization, Propagation modes, Factors affecting the propagation of radio waves, Propagation of radio waves at different frequencies: Critical frequency and maximum usable frequency, Line-of-sight propagation: Tropospheric scatter propagation.

**Antennas: **

Isotopic antenna, Radiation from a short dipole and power radiated by it. Radiation from a short grounded aerial, Effective height of an antenna, Antenna excitation. Half-wave and Quarter-wave antenna. Antenna arrays, linear array, end-fire and broadside arrays, Folded dipole, lop-periodic antennas, Baluns, Antenna types: Loop, slot, yagi-uda, parabolic, rhombic antennas, horn antennas: Patterns and patterns multiplication, Application of antennas at different frequency band, Some important antenna parameters, Bean width, power gain etc.

**FEG 303 Engineering Mathematics III** **3 Credits Sem. 1**

Further Matrices

Direct graph and matrices. Application to engineering examples, Eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The characteristic equation. The Cauley – Hamilton theorem. The Kronecker product iterative solution of eigenvalues and vectors. Quadratic and hermitan forms. Triangles decomposition and its application. Matrix transformation, rotation of maxies, Diagonalisation, modal and special matrices.

Laplace Transforms

Transform of common functions. Properties of some functions. Shifting theorem. Inverse transforms. Solution of differential equations and simultaneous equations. Periodic and Heaviside unit step functions. Dirac delta impulse functions. Initial and final value theorems. Examples from electrical and Mechanical systems. Loaded beams.

Fourier Analysis

Definition and application. of Fourier series. Dirichlet conditions. Even and odd functions. Half and quarter wave symmetry. Application in civil, electrical and mechanical systems. Fourier transforms. Numerical harmonic analysis – twelve point analysis.

Double and triple integer, Line integral. Close curves. Parametric equation. Green’s theorem. Surface integral in two and three dimensions. Volume integral. Change of variables. Jacobian transformation..

Numerical analysis:

Numerical solution of equations – the Newton-Raphson iterative method. Numerical solution of differential equations. Euler method and the Runge-Kutta techniques. Curve fittings.

Special Function:

The gamma function – definition. Gamma function of negative values of x. The beta function. Relation between gamma and beta functions. The error function. The elliptic function of the first and second kind. Bessel function.

**ELE 311 Circuit Theory II** **2 Credits** **Sem. 1 **

**Network Theorems and Network Topology **

Network Theorems, Telegen’s Theorems. The Duality Principles Topology: General Steady State and Transient solutions. Network Transformations; State space Formulations of Networks. Magnetically Coupled Networks. Resonance in Networks.

Time Domain Analysis of Network.

Application of intero-differential equations to network, initial and final conditions. Forced responses and natural behaviour. Step and impulse Response.

**ECE 323 Electrical Devices and Circuits** **2 Credits (Sem. 1) Prerequisite FEG 201 **

The objective of this course is to teach the concept of models of electronic devices and application of these models in the analysis of non-linear circuits and also the limitation of these models.

**Bipolar transistor:** Review of transistor biasing, fixed and emitter biasing. Effects of coupling capacitors. Hybrid parameter model. . Limitation of models.

**Single Stage Amplifier:** Common emitter common base and common collector amplifiers. Impedance transformation current and voltage gains, input and output impedances.

**Multiple Amplifiers: **Common emitter common cascade, CE CB and CE CE configuration. Darlington and Long tail pair configurations. Field effect transistor. Constructional features, biasing techniques. JFET and MOSFET. Voltage gains, common sources and common drain amplifiers. Multiple FET amplifiers.

**High Frequency Amplifiers**: Hybrid pi-node of bipolar and FET devices. Effect of base Emitter and collector capacitances.

**Power Amplifiers**: Analysis of class A, B and C amplifiers. Distortion analysis, transformer coupling. Heat sink analysis.

**Voltage Regulation and Stabilizer:** Zener diode stabilizer, Transistor stabilizer circuits. Series and feedback stabilizer.

**Feedback Amplifiers**: Negative feedback amplifiers, series and parallel feedback.

**ECE 333 Digital System Design 2 Credits (Sem. 1)**

Introduction: Digital and Analog Quantities, Binary Digits. Logic levels and digital wave form. Introduction to basic logic operations. Digital integrated circuit.

Number systems, Operations and codes: Decimal and Binary arithmetic,, 1’s and 2’s compliments of binary numbers, Hexadecimals and octal numbers, Binary coded decimal (BCD) and digital codes.

**Logic Gates:** The inverters, AND gate, OR gate, NAND and NOR gates. Exclusive-OR and Exclusive-NOR gates, example of IC gates.

**Boolean Algebra and Logic Simplification**: Boolean operations and expressions, Laws and rules of Boolean Algebra, Demorgan’s theorems, Simplification using Boolean Algebra Standard Forms of Boolean Algebra, the Kamaugh map.

**Combinational Logic**: Basic combination logic circuits implementing combinational logic functions of combinational logic.

**Clocks and Training Circuits**: Crystal and LC oscillator circuits. Astable and monostable time using IC chips (NE 555, 74121 and 74123). Programmable timers and Programmable timer/counters. CMOS timer ICs. Power – Up one shot circuits.

**ELE 341 Electromagnetic Field and Waves3 Credits (Sem. 1)**

**Energy and Potentials**: Definition of potential difference, potential gradient. The potential field of a system of charges. The diploe. Energy density in the electrostatic field energy and its flow.

**Conductors and Dielectrics**: Current and current density, continuity of currents. Conductors properties and boundary conditions. Dielectric material capacitance and examples.

**Time Varying Field and Maxwell’s Equations**: Maxwell’s Equation in integral form. Practical application of Maxwell’s Equation. Simple solutions of field equation and their application in circuit theory.

**The steady Magnetic Field**: Ampere’s circuit law, the scalar and vector magnetic potential derivation of steady magnetic laws. Magnetization and magnetic boundary conditions.

**Varying Electromagnetic Field**: Varying magnetic field in thin plates. Electromagnetic field in conductors, Study of skin effect.

**Propagation and Reflection of Electromagnetic waves**: Plane dielectrics. Polluting Vectors and power consideration. Reflection of uniform plane waves. Standing wave.

**ECE 331 Signals and Systems** **2 Credits (Sem. 1)**

**Models of physical systems**. Applications of linear differential equations for differential equations to the analysis of linear systems with electrical network as examples.

**Superposition and Convolution**: Discrete and continuous time system impulse response, Numerical method in convolution. State variable description of discrete an continuous time system solution of state variable equations. The concepts of observability and control ability.

**Functions of Matrices**: Importance and application of state matrix.

**Nature of Spectrum of a Signal:** Fourier series representation of periodic and non-periodic signals. Parsevals theorem, Sampling of time signal and transmission of signal through linear filters – properties of Fourier transforms.

**Probability Density Functions**: Gaussian Releign and Bivariate distributions. Error-probability and decision making. Power spectral density.

**Analysis of Cascaded Systems**: Application of Laplace and inverse transforms, Stability in the S-domain, Laplace transform analysis of casual periodic inputs to linear systems Z. Transform: The Z transform and its inverse. Properties of the Z transform. Application of the Z transform including the Direct Z transform method of filter design.

**ELE 343 Electromechanical Devices and Machines I ** **2 Credits (Sem. I) **

**Magnetic Circuits**: Magnetic and Electric Field Energy and Forces, Magnetic field, Magnetic circuits, Magnetic field energy, Electromechanical conversion principles. Alignment force and torque: Simple excitation, force torque, double excitation forms of rotary machine, other interaction force, prototype two pole cylindrical machine multipolar, Elementary linear machines.

**Basic elements of electrical machines**: Basic concepts of flux linkage and linkage change. Transformers, General features and principles of operation, transformer classification, equivalent circuits and phasor diagrams. Determination of transformer parameters. Performance calculations, voltage regulation, efficient parallel operation, load sharing. Auto transformer, potential and current transformers, vector groupings and connection harmonics. Tap-changing transformers, three phase transformer rating.

**ELE 353 Power Systems** **3 Credits (Sem. I) **

Introduction to conventional and renewable energy resources for power generation. Principles of power generations: hydro and thermal plants. Gas turbine plant, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generation, economic consideration in the choice of plant types.

**Power supply planning**: System planning, generating station location and plant size, high, medium and low voltage power networks, busbar systems, substation sitting, load, voltage factor control, load diversity and utilization factor, maximum demand.

**System economics**: Economic loading of machines, tariffs, overhead lines, long, medium and short line calculations. Power charts, transmission line efficiency and voltage regulation. P.U. rating, power cables.

**Transformers**: Operating characteristics, loading, losses, efficiency and regulation, winding convection, equivalent circuits, three phase transformers, tap changing.

**Distributed System**: Distributing system planning, choice of distribution voltage, radial characteristics, sub-transmission and distribution substation.

**ELE 312 Circuit Theory II** **2 Credits (Sem. II) **

Frequency domain analysis of network.

Network Functions: Poles and Zeros, Frequency response curve. Bode plots and Nyquistg plots. Signal classification. Fourier series and Periodic signals. Fourier integral and non-periodic signals. Application of Fourier series in Network Analysis. Network Synthesis.

Introduction to passive Network Synthesis: Computer aided analysis of linear and non-linear circuits.

Introduction of Machines: Open circuit performance measurements, short circuit tests, load and synchronization tests with solid-state converters.

**ECE328 Electronic Devices and Circuits ** **2 Credits (Sem. II) Prerequisite ECE 331 **

**Feedback Amplifiers**: Voltage series and current shunt feedback.

**Feedback Oscillators:** Hartley, Colpitts and phase shift oscillators. Negative resistance oscillators, crystal and blocking oscillators, bridge networks.

**Pulse and Switching Circuits**: Linear wave shaping circuits, switching characteristics of devices. The transistor as a switch. Clipping, clamping and comparator circuits, pulse transformer and delay lines.

**Waveform Generators**: Ramp generators, Miller integrator with voltage and current sweep. Bootstrap sweep circuits.

**Multivibrators:** Monostable, bistable and astable multivibrators. The Schmitz trigger circuit.

**ECE 326 Physical Electronics ** ** ** **3 Credits (Sem. II) Prerequisite FEG 201 **

**Energy Band in Solids**: The electron volt unit of energy, electronic structure of elements, Energy band theory of crystals, insulators, semiconductors and metals.

**Transport Phenomenon in Semiconductors**: Mobility and conductivity, intrinsic conduction, Electrical properties of germanium and silicon, Diffusion modulation and hall effect.

**Fermi Level:** The Fermi dirac function, Fermi level in semiconductors. Semiconductor equation.

**ECE 334 Digital System Design II ** **2 Credits (Sem. II) **

**Interfacing**: Interfacing between different types of logic gates (TT, CMOS, ECL, etc.), Interfacing between logic gates and optocouplers, phototransistors, photodiodes, Switching transistors and light emitting diode.

**Signal Converters**: Digital – to Analog (D/A) Converters. The resistor network current D/A converters. The Analog – to Digital (A/D) Converters, Counter controlled successive approximation and simultaneous conversion methods.

**Digital Readouts**: 7-segment display and display drivers, Multiplexed and unmultiplexed displays, Keyboard encoders.

**Introduction to Micro-computer and microprocessors**: Using the computer, the works of a computer operator, executive programs, operating systems multiprogramming multi access, virtual storage Programming languages in storing instructions, machine code, low and high level languages software. Executing machine code program, the programme counter, decoders, the instruction register, the fetch/execute cycle control execution, micro programs. Application of the use of software in digital systems implication.

**ELE 382 Feedback and Control Systems 3Credits (Sem. II) Prerequisite ECE 331 **

**Introduction:** Classification and examples of control systems, control systems terminology. Open loop and closed loop block diagram models.

**Transfer Function**: Mathematical model of feedback systems. Types of response. Second order systems criterion. Continued fraction stability criterion.

**Block Diagram Algebra**: Procedure blocks in cascade, Canonical form of feedback system. Multi input system. Reduction techniques.

**Signal flow graphs**: Construction techniques, Input – output gain formula. Reaction by signal flow graphs.

**Analysis and Design**: Objective of analysis, Root locus analysis/design. Nyquist analysis and design. Bode analysis, Nichol chart.

**Compensation techniques**: Lead, Lag, Lead Lag and Lag lead compensation.

**Nonlinear systems**: Discrete time systems. System with random inputs, optimal and adaptive control systems. Linearized and piece wise linear systems.

**ELE 372 Instrumentation And Measurement I ** **2 Credits (Sem. II) **

**Introduction**: Types of equipment for measuring electric and nonelectric quantities, monitoring and control of process and operations. Interpretation of results.

**Reliability**: Definition and assessment of equipment reliability periods and probability of failure. Maintainability and availability.

**Analog instruments**: Moving coil, moving iron and electrodynamic instruments. Energy meters.

**Bridges:** Wheatstone bridges, Maxwell, Owen, Wien and Schering bridges. DC and AC potentiometers.

**Ammeters Cathode Ray Oscilloscope**: Single and dual trace scopes.

**Transducers:** Resistance and reactance change transducers. Ultrasonic transducers, self-generating transducers.

**Single Sources**: Function generators, audio frequency signal source, Pulse generator, Modulated signal sources.

**Digital Instrumentation**: Digital counter and timers, frequency and time measurements. Analog to digital converter, digital voltmeters..

**ELE 342 Electrodynamics** **2 Credits (Sem. II) **

Basic subject in electrodynamics with emphasis on phenomena associated with waves propagation and radiation. Plane waves in three dimensions. Field solutions of an elementary electric dipole radiation from current distribution and arrays diffraction and interference. Guided electromagnetic waves on continuous transmission lines. Periodic structures and metallic wave guides or propagation and evanescence, energy and group velocity. Natural frequencies and modes and closed electromagnetic structure coupling to resonant structures. Load and unloaded Q’s. Example throughout taken from the field of acoustic optics and microwaves.

**ELE 344 Electromechanical Devices and Machines II ** **2 Credits (Sem. II) **

**Three Phase System**: Complex power flow in three phase circle measurement of power in 3 phase A. C. circuits.

**Dynamics of single excited systems**: System behaviour, Electric circle equations. Conversion relations. Equation of motive, A.C. Excitation, Parallel generator, other limited motive devices.

**Machines with Multiple Excitation**: Machines with single excitation, Machines with double excitation, Machines with multiple excitation, pulsational and motive voltages, linear motion interaction machines, Electro-acoustic machine, magnetohydrodynamic machine. Disc machine. Elements of industrial rotating machines, industrial machines.

**Winding**: Phase windings, commutator windings; winding technique. Winding inductance, inductance of winding assemblies, rotating electromotive force, coil emf, phase emf, commutator emf, commutator/phase emf by mutual inductance, leakage, saturation and loss.

**ECE 322 Telecommunication II** **2 Credits (Sem. II) Prerequisite ECE 331 **

**Transmitters and Receivers**: Low level and high level modulation transmitters, Amplitude and frequency modulated transmitters.

Radio receivers: TRF and Super net; Receivers; AM broadcast receivers; RF amplifier; Frequency changers, IF amplifiers, Detector; AGC; Communication receivers; Variable selectivity, Noise limiter, Squelch, AFC; SSB receivers; Diversity reception: Space and frequency dive reception; FM receivers. Important features of radio receivers; select; Sensitivity, ganging and tracking.

**Transmission Lines**: Primary Electrical Constants, Secondary constants; Reflection in the finite terminated line; Distortion transmission; Standing waves; General line equations; Classification of lines; Line loading; Open wire lines and coaxial cables.

**Telephony and Telegraphy**: Telephony: telegraphy instruments, telephone sets, Electronic telephones, Transmission circuits. Repeaters and hybrid circuit, Local Battery and Central Battery exchanges; Automatic telephony: Uniselector and two way switches, Stronger exchanges, crossbar switches exchanges, electronic telephone exchanges, Telephone numbering schemes (CCITT) Telegraphy, telegraphy instruments; Single and double current circuits, Duplex, Quadruplex, circuits, teleprinter, Traffic and trunking; Telephone signaling methods; Basic analogue switching systems.

**Communication channels and Noise**: Characteristics of communication channels; Classification of Noise; Noise source; External noise, internal noise, thermal agitation noise, shot noise, etc. Noise measurement: Noise figure, Noise figure measurement, Noise figure in Amplifiers, Noise temperature, Noise in communication systems, Noise in AM, FM and PM systems, Communication services; Fascimile, Radar, TV and Satellite.

**ELE 314 Electrical Services Design** **2 Credit (Sem. 2) **

Lighting installation. Power installation, energy supply and distribution, choice of cables and conductors, wiring systems and accessories, outdoor low voltage lines and cables, protection of low voltage installation and characterization of low voltage equipment, Earthing and testing of electrical installation, illumination.

**ELE 403 Circuit Theory III ** **3 Credits (Sem. I) **

**Laplace Transforms in circuit analysis: **Laplace transform and its properties, transform circuit, pole zero analysis.

**Fourier Methods in wave form and circuit analysis: **Real and complex forms of fourier series. Fourier analysis of complex waveforms, Parsevails thermo, line spectra response. The Duhamel Superposition integral.

**Transmission line Theory: **Characteristics and parameters of transmission lines. The smith chart and its application to impedance matching.

Two port networks: General definitions of two port parameters. Insertation loss or gain, two port network, Image and iterative impedances. Equivalent T and pi networks.

Network parameters: The impedance (Z) and admittance (Y), Hybrid (H), transmission (ABCD) and other parameters of a two port network, interconnection of network.

CVE 423 Engineering Contracts and Specification 2 Credits (Sem. I)

Business and professional relations in Engineering. Elements of business law. The law of contractor, Professional relations in Engineering. The law in Engineering relations. Subcontracting laws. Labour laws, workmen’s compensation acts. Equation Employment opportunity laws, minimum wages and hours laws in labour relations. Contract documents, specification writing, contract of the specifications. Risk allocation and liability sharing, claims, disputes and arbitration, Presentation of Engineering evidence.

**ECE 427 Advanced Circuit Techniques** **3 Credits (Sem. I) **

**Fundamental of Operational Amplifiers**: Inverting and non-inverting mode. Offset errors and chopper stabilization, frequency related characteristics.

**Summing Circuits**: Summers and subtractors, instruments amplifier.

**Integrators and Differentiators**: Single, summing augmenting and differential integrators and differentiators.

**Linear Circuit Applications**: Bridge Amplifiers, Voltages to current converters. Voltage regulators, current and voltage amplifier.

**Analog to Digital Converters**: Comparison techniques, successive approximation and dual slope integrators, sample and hold circuits.

**Waveform Generators**: Sine, square and triangular wave generators. Pulse circuits.

**ELE 445 Dynamics of Electrical Machine 3 Credits (Sem. I) **

Industrial Rotating Machines:

- Classification, operating conditions.
- Commutator machine.

iii. Essentials.

- D.C. machines, Armature windings and the commutator, Armatuer reaction, Commutator and compensation. Testing and efficiency, speed control of D.C. motors, D.C. machine dynamics, transfer functions, functions.
- A.C. commutator machines.
- Polyphase machines.

vii. Operating characteristics, circle diagram, Equivalent circuit and phasor diagram. Characteristics of polyphase cage and slip ring machines in generator, motor and brake modes, speed methods, transient performance, current and torque of polyphase machines, induction generator.

viii. Induction machines.

- Synchronous machines.
- Review of the general principles of operation of salient pole machines basis of operation.
- Blondel’s two axes theory.

xii. Circuit diagram of V-curves, curves.

xiii. Torques/angle characteristics. Power limit.

xiv. Synchronous machine on infinite busbar.

- Generator operating charts, parallel operation of Synchronous generators.

xvi. Excitation system, voltage regulation.

xvii. Transient performance, generation, short circuit transients and subtract reactance, field transient, motor run up. Serial machines.

xviii. Linear induction motor, reluctance motor, stepping motors, A.C. servo motor, synchros and metadine generator.

**ELE 453 Alternative Energy Studies** ** 3 Credits (Sem. I) Prerequisite ELE 353**

Conventional Energy Sources: Fossil Fuel and Hydro Sources. Nuclear Energy. Method of derivation, uses and control of nuclear energy. Application to electric power generation, renewable energy sources.

Solar Energy: Method of electric power generation from solar energy, utilization of solar energy for heating, cooling and generation of electricity. Solar radiation, black body radiation, sensitivity of materials to solar radiation. Heat transfer, flat plate collection, heat mirrors and energy storage.

- Photovoltaic generation, photoelectrolysis
- Classification , operating conditions
- Commutator machines
- Essentials
- Wind energy and its application for power generation
- Biomass energy and its application for practical Electromechanical energy conversion devices
- Magnetohydrodynamic generators
- Gas turbine and steam turbine
- Hydro turbines
- Energy Modelling
- Energy conversion
- Energy Policy

**ELE 473 Instrumentation and Measurement II** **3 Credits (Sem. I) **

**Functional description of Instruments**: The functional elements of an instrument. Active and passive transducers. Analog and digital modes of operation. Null and deflection method. Methods of correction of interfering and modifying inputs.

**Performance characteristics of Instruments**: Accuracy, precision and bias, error analysis, static sensitivity and linearity, scale readability, reliability and maintainability.

**Motion measurements**: Relative displacement and velocity. Strain gauges, synchros and induction potentiometers, Acceleration measurements, pickups and sensors.

**Force, Torque and Shaft Power Measurement**: Characteristics of Electric force transducers, vectors, force and moments, torque measurement on rotating shaft, power measurement (dynamometers) gyroscopic force and torque measurement.

**Pressure and Sound Measurement**: Basic methods of pressure measurements, dead weight gauges and manometers, force balance transducers, High and Low pressure measurements. Macleod gauge. Knudsen gauge, viscosity gauge and ionization gauge. Sound measurements, microphones and sound level meters.

**Flow measurement**: Local flow velocity magnitude and direction. Velocity direction from yaw tube, pivoted vano and served sphere. Dynamic wind vector indicator, Hotwire and hot film manometers. Gross volume flow rate. Turbine meters, metering pumps, ultrasonic flow meters, mass flow meters.

**Temperature and Heat Flux Measurement**: Bimetallic and pressure thermometers, thermonuclear sensors (Thermocouples). Electrical resistance sensors, thermistors, radiation detectors, temperature sensing devices. Heat flux sensors.

**Digital instrumentation**: Analog to Digital and Digital to Analog converters. Digital readouts based around the 7-segment display. Digital meters.

**FEG 404 Engineering Mathematics IV ** **3 Credits**

**Vector analysis**: Revision of scalar and vector quantities, vector functions of one variable. The Del operator, line surface and volume integral, Stroke and Green’s theorems, Gaus-divergence theorem, Oblique co-ordinates. Tensor covariant differentiation.

Calculus of Variation: Extreme of functions of several variables. Lagrange’s multiples properties of the characteristic values (A-B)X=0. The Euler equation for b=1 (x, y, z)dx variations. The extreme of integral under constraints.

**The Stum Liouville Problems**: The Hamilton’s Principles and lagrange equation.

**Partial Differential Equations**: Derivation of equation, D’Alembert solution of the wave equation, separation of variable. The heat conduction equation. Laplace equation. Use of Fourier series in fitting boundary conditions.

**Further Numerical Analysis**: Finite difference method of solving parent differential equations. Interpolation formulas. Numerical differentiation and integration. Iterative methods of solving linear systems, Jacobi, Gauss Seidel and relation techniques.

**Power Series Solution of Differential Equation**: Higher differential coefficients, Leibnitz theorem, Leibnitz Maclaurin method, Frobenus method. Series of complex terms. Tailor and Lorentz’s expression. Legendre polynomials.

**Complex Variable**: Functions and derivatives of complex variables – Cauchy – equations, analytic functions, singular points. Residue theorem, Confortmal mapping. The bilinear transformation. Contour integration and application, Schwarz-Christoffel transformation.

**Optimization Technique**: Classical optimization techniques, linear and nonlinear programming, dynamic programming, Network analysis and critical path analysis.

**ELE 504 Network Analysis and Synthesis** **3 Credits (Sem. II) Prerequisite ECE 321**

Network parameters of a two port network, image and iterative parameters of a two port network.

**Interconnection of Network**: Analysis of ladder Networks. Elements of reliability theory.

Causality and stability, Hurwitz polynomial, Elementary synthesis procedures. Driving points and continued fractions. Transfer function synthesis. Passive filter design, Buttenworth, Chebyshew and elliptic techniques. M derived and constant K filters, Low pass, high pass, impedance and frequency scaling. High order filters. Nigard circuits. Determining the right order of a filter. Wideboard filters, Active notch filters, State variable filters, indicator simulation using gyrators. Effects of real op-amp on active filters.

**ELE 549 Design of electromechanical Devices and Electrical Machines 3 Credits (Sem. I)**

**Design of transformers**: Design specification, core windings and tank designs. Thermal rating, momentary limitations, specific loadings. Allocation of losses and cooling system.

**Induction motors**: Design specifications, ratings, output coefficient, specific loadings, cooling, performance characteristics.

**Design of Synchronous Machines**: Design specification, rating and dimensions, excitation and governing systems design, cooling system, insulation, stray losses.

**Design of Commutator Machines**: D.C. Machines and A.C. commutator machines.

**ECE 517 Real Time Computing and Control ** **3 Credits (Sem. I) **

Real Time Control Concepts: Open loop and closed control, Feedback sensors and feedback real time.

**Remote Control Techniques**: Optical isolation and touching techniques. Multiplex open loop control of several devices in real time. Interrupt driven real time events and physical systems; Emphasis is in control of physical device requiring varying degrees of real time interaction. Typical projects include microcomputer banned stepper motors. D.C. and A.C. motor traffic light control. Software based real time clocks, function generation and system monitoring and control.

**Operation System environment**: The limitation or high level languages in real time application. The linking of machine code and assembly language with high level language program for overcoming time constraints. Use of dynamic data structure in interactive environments.

**Multiprocessor Systems**: Interprocessor communication strategies. IEE 488 general purpose interface Bus (GPIB). The S100 Bus standard. Use of memory communication. Control Computer Systems. Characteristics of Control Computers. Performance evaluation.

**ECE 505 Computer Aided Circuit Design ** **3 Credits (Sem. I) **

**Network Design by Computer**: The application of computer in engineering. Network classification and response.

**Analysis of Linear Networks**: Solution by L.U. factorization, superposition and sparsity. Network scaling ladder Networks.

**Non Linear DC Circuit Analysis**: Types of resistive nonlinearities, Solution of nonlinear resistive Networks, composite companion models.

**Transient Analysis of Dynamic Networks**: Transient analysis of linear sensitivity calculation, Sensitive and computer aided design. Telegen Thermo, Calculating of sensitivities. Tolerance analysis.

**Techniques of Equation Formation**: Elementary graph theory, formulation of analytic solution. State variable analysis, state equations for RCL network.

**Numerical Techniques in Transient Analysis**: Analytic solution of linear differential equations, single step integration, the Runge-Kutta integration. Multi step integration. Explicit integration.

**ELE 547 Power Electronics and Drives ** **3 Credits (Sem. I) Prerequisite ECE 323 **

Telectric and thermal characteristics and ratings of power semiconductor devices including diodes, transistors, triacs, thyristors. Application to phase angle control point on the wave trigger pulse circuit, current regulators, speed regulators, voltage and current limiting devices.

Frequency control of inverters, drives and cycloconverters applied to A. C. Motor, analysis of inverter circuit.

**Electric drives**: Individual, group and collective drives, transmission of drives, coefficient of adhesion, mechanics of motor system, thermal rating of motor system, thermal rating of motors, fluctuating loads equalization, duty cycle, heating and cooling time constants, dynamic performance of motors, selection of motor for specific purposes, reluctance hysteresis and linear motors.

**Control schemes for electric Drives Feedback**: Control loops and their effect on stability control sensors for displacement, velocity, power factor and reactive power, gain requirement and accuracy, loop transfer function, logic circuit and static switching control applications. Timing and counting circuits.

**ELE 553 Power System Analysis** **3 Credits (Sem. I)**

- Introduction to power system Engineering
- Symmetrical components and review of numerical techniques for nonlinear problems in power systems.

iii. Definition of an electric power system in terms of its principal techniques for nonlinear components.

- Modelling of power system components. Generating unit, transformers, transmission lines and loads. Use of these models to study quasi-state and transient behaviour of power system. Load flow, fault analysis, steady state voltage and transient stability studies
- State Estimation.

**ELE 554 Power System Planning and Control** **3 Credits (Sem. II) **

Network load prediction: The load prediction problem, prediction technique, involving meteorological data, prediction technique past load data only.

**Plant Ordering**: Start up costs, Running costs, Total Generation costs, Plant operation limitations. Control of power and frequency, Control of voltage and reactive power, Economic element of a real-time computers. Computer based Telecontrol. Network topology determination. Load frequency control. Power Station Control, Data Processing. Automatic frequency control. Plant control, Unit control.

**ELE 556 Power Plant Protection and Control ** **3 Credits (Sem. II) **

Wave propagation along power transmission lines. Power line pilot wire and microwave media, characteristic impedance of power line. Propagation constants, Matching line traps, Coupling capacitors, Bandwidth division and channel allocation. Philosophy of system protection and protective relaying. Elements of power protection, Sensing devices, current transformers, potential transformers and potential devices and relay, relay operating principles. Relay types (electromechanical and static types); over current , instantaneous and time delay relay, directional, differential, impedance (distance) relay, relay schemes, carrier current, pilot wire, tone microwave, transfer trip.

**ELE 557 Electric Power Transmission** **3 Credits (Sem. I) **

General layout of power transmission system. Transmission voltages and selection of suitable voltages. Distinction between transmission, Sub-transmission and distribution system. Transmission line parameters. Analysis of three phase balanced supply and load system. Representation and reduction of power systems using per unit percentage values. Calculation of voltage drops, regulation, power losses, efficiency and reactive power flow for short, medium and long lines. T and pi equivalent circuit, synchronous, phase modifiers, voltage and power factor correction, overhead lines; conductors, materials, line construction configuration. Effect of conductor arrangement on the inductance and capacitance of single phase and three phase lines. Calculation of line tension, sag, span, pole, height, and superposition over a given profile.

**Pole**: Wood and concrete pole, planting of poles, pole structures, forces guys and streets, foundation and execution of towers earth plates, testing earthing, underground cables; conductors, insulating, sheeting and armouring materials; types, size and rating of cables, methods of laying protection against mechanical damage, corrosion; oil drainage in vertical cables, thermal characteristics, cable parameter and their determination, insulation, insulation break down of cables.

**ELE 558 High Voltage Engineering** **3 Credits (Sem. II) **

Generation of high voltages; advantages of high voltage generation and transmission, Generation of high A.C. and D.C. and impulse voltages and currents measurement and testing of high A.C. and D.C. and impulse voltages and currents rating of high voltage equipment, requirement for testing internal and external insulation systems. Dielectric breakdown mechanism, general theories of breakdown of gases, liquids, solids and vacuum low and high field conduction in dielectric. Structure of materials, ionization process and gas breakdown, self-sustaining discharges, electrostatic fields, surge phenomenon, insulation coordination and insulation design. Insulation in polluted atmospheres. Corona and interference from high voltage power systems. Switch gear technology. Current interrupter techniques. Oil, gas, blast and air break circuit breakers, principles of interrupter design, protection of against over voltages, surge diverters, shielding by earth wires. Basic impulse level (BIL) etc.

**ELE 574 Control Systems** **3 Credits (Sem. II) Prerequisite ELE 382 **

**Non Linear Control Systems**: Piece wise linearization and phase pla techniques, the method of isoclines, state variable representation 1st, 2nd and Jordan canonical forms, solution of state equations including the use of transition matrix. Matrics flow diagrams, multivariable systems, Optimal control systems.

**Adaptive Control Systems**: Lyapov’s criterion, Sampled data control system. Pulse transfer functions, loops function application to root locus, initial and final value theorem for compensators. Computer software based simulation, Direct Digital control (DDC), DDC system configuration advantages and economic consideration.